Arrival at a ball in Colonial Philadelphia by J. L. G. Ferris.

Arrival at a ball in Colonial Philadelphia by J. L. G. Ferris.

The custom of a man tipping his hat to others derived from an ancient practice. When knights in medieval times wanted to express friendly intent, they would raise their face masks and reveal their faces. The practice of saluting is also derived from this friendly exchange between knights.  Lifting one’s armor mask eventually evolved into the custom of “tipping” or “doffing” one’s hat to greet or acknowledge another, women in particular.  

Greetings

“If a gentleman meets a gentleman, he may salute him by touching his hat without removing it, but if a lady be with either gentleman, both hats must be lifted in salutation. If a gentleman stops to speak to a lady, in the street, he must hold his hat in his hand during the interview, unless she requests him to replace it. With a gentleman friend etiquette does not require this formality.” From Frosts Laws and By-Laws of American Society, 1869

A Courteous Greeting, painted by Otto Eerelman

A Courteous Greeting, painted by Otto Eerelman

Knights would remove their helmet when entering a building to signify a peaceful position, since a knight could not fight or defend himself without the helmet.  Since the removal of his helmet made him vulnerable, it informed others that combat or any type of violence was not his motive. This practice also evolved into the removal of one’s hat when entering a building, when hearing the national anthem and in different situations where they would not be going back out in public immediately. Men would hold their hats in their hand when speaking with a lady but would put it back on when they began to walk together if out in public.

TFP National Conference

Short Stories on Honor, Chivalry, and the World of Nobility—no. 522

Reprinted with the kind permission of Maura J Graber
Etiquette Enthusiast Maura J Graber is the Site Moderator and Editor for the Etiquipedia© Etiquette Encyclopedia

 

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By Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira

Francisco Javier Parcerisa's Castle Belmonte, Spain

Francisco Javier Parcerisa’s Castle Belmonte, Spain

It appears that in some kingdoms of Europe, maybe the one of the Cid in the north of Spain, there was a contract between the king and his vassal so that if the king broke the contract, allegiance was extinguished. This is easy to understand because of the feudal bond. In other words, he could have been a very good vassal but the king broke the contract, and so he was unfortunately freed. But he could not play the role of an idiot and keep following a lord that had done him wrong. Don’t you think this is reasonable?

Medieval Life

But perfect chivalry should not be contractual. Contractual chivalry is not chivalry; it is the feudal bond. In the feudal bond, the king would give a man a piece of land and the man would in turn be obliged to assist the king in some ways; and for his part, the king also owed him assistance. This feudal bond was undone as long as one of the parties broke the contract. This is very just because a region has the right to defend itself against an abusive central power; and the fiefdom was a region. Lest we should fall into royal absolutism, we must recognize that the regional feudal lord has a right to break with the king if the king wants to decimate the region.

knights by Paul Hector Mair

Chivalry is another matter altogether: it is a personal bond. Even more: it is not just a personal bond but a personal bond in the Order of chivalry. It is different with a knight. In the Order of chivalry, without ceasing to be a knight, the knight gives up his person to a certain end; and then it is like a religious Order in which the inferior cannot depose the superior because he is bad. He has to subject himself to the cross of the superior’s evil. (Excerpt from a Chá, Wednesday, Nov. 1, 1989 – Nobility.org translation)

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St. Robert of Molesme

Born about the year 1029, at Champagne, France, of noble parents who bore the names of Thierry and Ermengarde; died at Molesme, 17 April, 1111.

Statue of St Robert of Molesme in Germany

When fifteen years of age, he commenced his novitiate in the Abbey of Montier-la-Celle, or St. Pierre-la-Celle, situated near Troyes, of which he became later prior. In 1068 he succeeded Hunaut II as Abbot of St. Michael de Tonnerre, in the Diocese of Langres.

About this time a band of seven anchorites who…

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Saint Hugh the Great

Abbot of Cluny, born at Semur (Brionnais in the Diocese of Autun), 1024; died at Cluny, 28 April, 1109.

His early life

The eldest son of Count Dalmatius of Semur and Aremberge (Aremburgis) of Vergy, Hugh was descended from the noblest families in Burgundy. Dalmatius, devoted to war and the chase, desired that Hugh should adopt the knightly calling and succeed to the ancestral estates; his mother, however, influenced it is said by a vision vouchsafed to a priest whom she consulted, wished her son to dedicate himself to the service of God. From his earliest years…

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Pope Saint Pius V

St. Pope Pius V, photographed at the Musee des Arts Decoratifs

Born at Bosco, near Alexandria, Lombardy, 17 Jan., 1504 elected 7 Jan., 1566; died 1 May, 1572. Being of a poor though noble family his lot would have been to follow a trade, but he was taken in by the Dominicans of Voghera, where he received a good education and was trained in the way of solid and austere piety. He entered the order, was ordained in 1528, and taught theology and philosophy for sixteen years. In the meantime he was master of novices and was on several occasions elected prior of different houses of his order in which he strove to develop the practice of the monastic virtues and spread the spirit of the holy founder. He himself was an example to all. He fasted, did penance, passed long hours of the night in meditation and prayer, traveled on foot without a cloak in deep silence, or only speaking to his companions of the things of God…

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St. Sigismund of Burgundy

This saint was son of Gondebald, the Arian king of the Burgundians; but embraced the Catholic faith through the instructions of St. Alcimus Avitus, bishop of Vienne. (1) He succeeded to the kingdom of his father in 516, and in the midst of barbarism lived humble, mortified, penitent, devout, and charitable, even on the throne; a station in which the very name of true virtue is too often scarcely known. Before the death of his father, he built the famous monastery of St. Maurice at Agaune, in the Valais, in the year 515, where many holy hermits lived before that time in scattered cells.—God permitted this good prince to fall into…

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St. Mafalda of Portugal

St. Mafalda of Portugal, in an anonymous 18th century painting

In the year 1215, at the age of eleven, Princess Mafalda (i.e. Matilda), daughter of King Sancho I of Portugal, was married to her kinsman King Henry I of Castile, who was like herself a minor.

Henry I of Castille, the son of Alfonsus VIII called the Noble. His marriage to St. Mafalda was annulled.

The marriage was annulled the following year on the ground of the consanguinity of the parties, and Mafalda returned to her own country, where she took the veil in the Benedictine convent of Arouca.

As religious observance had become greatly relaxed, she induced the community  to adopt the Cistercian rule. Her own life was one of extreme austerity. The whole of the large income bestowed upon her by her father was devoted to pious and charitable uses. She restored the cathedral of Oporto, founded a hostel for pilgrims, erected a bridge over the Talmeda and built an institution for the support of twelve widows at Arouca. When she felt that her last hour was approaching she directed, according to a common medieval practice, that she should be laid on ashes. Her last words were, “Lord, I hope in thee.” Her body after death shone with a wonderful radiance, and when it was exposed in 1617 it is said to have been…

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May 2 – St. Athanasius

April 28, 2016

St. Athanasius

Bishop of Alexandria; Confessor and Doctor of the Church; born c. 296; died 2 May, 373. Athanasius was the greatest champion of Catholic belief on the subject of the Incarnation that the Church has ever known and in his lifetime earned the characteristic title of “Father of Orthodoxy”, by which he has been distinguished every since. While the chronology of his career still remains for the most part a hopelessly involved problem, the fullest material for an account of the main achievements of his life will be found in his collected writings and in the contemporary records of his time. He was born, it would seem, in Alexandria, most probably between the years 296 and 298. An earlier date, 293, is sometimes assigned as the more certain year of his birth; and it is supported apparently by the authority of the “Coptic Fragment”…

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May 2 – Economist

April 28, 2016

St. Antoninus

Fresco of The alms of Sant'Antonio Pierozzi in the Church of San Domenico, Torino, Italy.

Fresco of The alms of Sant’Antonio Pierozzi in the Church of San Domenico, Torino, Italy.

Archbishop of Florence, b. at Florence, 1 March, 1389; d. 2 May, 1459; known also by his baptismal name Antoninus (Anthony), which is found in his autographs, in some manuscripts, in printed editions of his works, and in the Bull of canonization, but which has been finally rejected for the diminutive form given him by his affectionate fellow-citizens. His parents, Niccolò and Thomasina Pierozzi, were in high standing, Niccolò beinga notary of the Florentine Republic. At the age of fifteen (1404) Antoninus applied to Bl. John Dominic, the great Italian religious reformer of theperiod, then at the Convent of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, for admission to the Dominican Order. It was not until a year later that he was accepted, and he was the first to receive the habit for the Convent of Fiesole about to be constructed by Bl. John Dominic. With Fra Angelico and Fra Bartolommeo, the one to become famous as a painter, the other as a miniaturist, he was sent to Cortona to make his novitiate under Bl. Lawrence of Ripafratta. Upon the completion of his year in the novitiate, he returned to Fiesole, where he remained until 1409, when with his brethren, all faithful adherents of Pope Gregory XII, he was constrained by the Florentines, who had refused obedience, to take shelter in the Convent of Foligno. A few years later he began his career as a zealous promoter of the reforms inaugurated by Bl. John Dominic. In 1414 he was vicar of the convent of Foligno, thenin turn sub-prior and prior of the convent of Cortona, and later prior of the convents of Rome (Minerva), Naples (Saint Peter Martyr), Gaeta, Sienna,and Fiesole (several times). From 1433 to 1446 he was vicar of the Tuscan Congregation formed by Bl. John Dominic of convents embracing a more rigorous discipline. During this period he established (1436) the famous convent of St. Mark in Florence, where he formed a remarkable community from thebrethren of the convent of Fiesole. It was at this time also that he built with the munificent aid of Cosimo de’ Medici, the adjoining church, at the consecration of which Pope Eugene IV assisted (Epiphany, 1441). As a theologian he took part in the Council of Florence (1439) and gave hospitality in St. Mark’s to the Dominican theologians called to the council by Eugene IV.

Summa confessionalis, Curam illius habes, written by St. Antoninus.

Summa confessionalis, Curam illius habes, written by St. Antoninus.

Despite all the efforts of St. Antoninus to escape ecclesiastical dignities, he was forced by Eugene IV, who had personal knowledge of his saintly character and administrative ability, to accept the Archbishopric of Florence. He was consecrated in the convent of Fiesole, 13 march, 1446, and immediately took possession of the see over which he ruled until his death. As he had laboured in the past for the upbuilding of the religious life throughout his Order, so he henceforth laboured for it in his diocese, devoting himself to the visitation of parishes and religious communities, the remedy of abuses, the strengthening of discipline, the preaching of the Gospel, the amelioration of the condition of the poor, and the writing of books for clergy and laity. These labours were interrupted several times that he might act as ambassador for the Florentine Republic. Ill health prevented him from taking part in an embassy to the emperor in 1451, but in 1455 and again in 1458 he was at the head of embassies sent by the government to the Supreme Pontiff. He was called by Eugene IV to assist him in his dying hours. He was frequently consulted by Nicholas V on questions of Church and State, and was charged by Pius II to undertake, with several cardinals, the reform of the Roman Court. When his death occurred, 2 May, 1459, Pius II gave instructions for the funeral, and presided at it eight days later. He was canonized by Adrian VI, 31 May, 1523.

The literary productions of St. Antoninus, while giving evidence of the eminently practical turn of his mind, show that he was a profound student of history and theology. His principal work is the “Summa Theologica Moralis, partibus IV distincta”, written shortly before his death, which marked a new and very considerable development in moral theology. It also contains a fund of matter for the student of the history of the fifteenth century. Sowell developed are its juridical elements that it has been published under the title of “Juris Pontificii et Caesarei Summa”. An attempt was lately made by Crohns (Die Summa theologica des Antonin von Florenz und die Schätzung des Weibes im Hexenhammer, Helsingfors, 1903) to trace the fundamentals principles of misogony, so manifest in the “Witchammer” of the German Inquisitors, to this work of Antoninus. But Paulus (Die Verachtung der Frau beim hl. Antonin, in Historisch-Politische Blätter, 1904, pp. 812-830) has shown more clearly than several others, especially the Italian writers, that this hypothesis is untenable, because based on a reading of only a part of the “Summa” of Antoninus. Within fifty years after the first appearance of the work (Venice, 1477), fifteen editions were printed at Venice, Spires, Nuremberg, Strasburg, Lyons, and Basle. Other editions appeared in the following century. In 1740 it was published at Verona in 4 folio volumes edited by P. Ballerini; and in 1841, at Florence by Mamachi and Remedelli, O.P.

Statue of St. Antoninus. Photo by Sailko

Statue of St. Antoninus. Photo by Sailko

Of considerable importance are the manuals for confessors and penitents containing abridgments, reproductions, and translations from the “Summa” and frequently published in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries under the name of St. Antoninus. An unsuccessful attempt has been made to show that he was not the author of the Italian editions. At the most is should be granted that he committed to others the task of editing one or two. The various editions and titles of the manuals have caused confusion, and made it appear that there were more than four distinct works. A careful distinction and classification is given by Mandonnet in the “Dictionnaire de théologie catholique”. Of value as throwing light upon the home life of his time are his treatises on Christian life written for women of the Medici family and first published in the last century under the titles:—(1) “Opera a ben vivere…Con altri ammaestramenti”, ed. Father Palermo, one vol. (Florence, 1858) (2) “Regola di vita cristiana”, one vol. (Florence, 1866). His letters (Lettere) were collected and edited, some for the first time by Tommaso Corsetto, O.P., and published in one volume, at Florence, 1859.

The relic of St. Antoniunus in Salviati Chapel of St. Mark's Church. Photo by Sailko

The relic of St. Antoniunus in Salviati Chapel of St. Mark’s Church. Photo by Sailko

Under the title, “Chronicon partibus tribus distincta ab initio mundi ad MCCCLX” (published also under the titles “Chronicorum opus” and “Historiarum opus”), he wrote a general history of the world with the purpose of presenting to his readers a view of the workings of divine providence. While he did not give way to his imagination or colour facts, he often fell into the error, so common among the chroniclers of his period, of accepting much that should historical criticism has since rejected as untrue or doubtful. But this can be said only of those parts in which he treated of early history. When writing of the events and politics of his own age he exercised a judgment that has been of the greatest value to later historians. The history was published at Venice, 1474-79, in four volumes of his “Opera Omnia” (Venice, 1480; Nuremberg, 1484; Basle, 1491; Lyons, 1517, 1527, 1585, 1586,1587). A work on preaching (De arte et vero modo praedicandi) ran through four editions at the close of the fifteenth century. The volume of sermons (Opus quadragesimalium et de sanctis sermonum, sive flos florum) is the work of another, although published under the name of St. Antoninus.

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Unedited chronicles of the convents of St. Mark, Florence and St. Dominic, Fiesole: Quétif and Echard, SS. Ord. Praed.; Touron, Histoire des hommes illustres de l’ordre de S. Dominique; Maccarani, Vita di S. Antonino (Florence, 1708); Bartoli, Istoria dell’ arcivescovo S. Antonino e de suoi più illustri discepoli (Florence, 1782); Moro, Di S. Antonino in relazione alla riforma cattolica nel sec. XV (Florence, 1899); Schaube, Die Quellen der Weltchronik des heiligen Antoninus (Hirschberg, 1880).

A.L. MCMAHON (Catholic Encyclopedia)

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According to the Guardian:

Republic’s chief executive, Graham Smith, suggested that, when it happens, the Queen’s death will mark a turning point in public attitudes.

…“that will be an opportunity…for us to…say, ‘…we want to have a vote.’ Then if we have that vote, it can’t just be, ‘Do you want Charles?’ It has to be ‘Which person do you want?’ and it has to be a free and fair election.”

Smith said there were plenty of reasons for the European republican movement to be optimistic even if opinion polls showed that only about 20% of the UK population backed the idea.

To read the entire article in the Guardian, please click here.

Courtesy of BBC:

In pictures: Queen Elizabeth II at 90 in 90 images

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January of 1467 saw the death of the last great Albanian leader, George Castriota, better known as Scanderbeg. Raised by an Albanian chief, he placed himself at the head of his own people.

Subsequently, Scanderbeg inflicted stunning defeats on the Turkish army and occupied fortresses all over Albania.

With Scanderbeg’s death, the Turkish army, finally free from the Fulminating Lion of War, poured into Albania, occupying all its fortresses…

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St. Rafael Arnáiz Barón

(9 April 1911, Burgos, Spain – 26 April 1938, Dueñas, Palencia, Spain)

Rafael Arnáiz, known in the monastery as Brother María Rafael, was born on 9 April 1911 in the city of Burgos, in north-central Spain. He was the first of four sons born to a well-to-do, deeply Christian and Catholic family. As a boy he went to several schools run by the Jesuit Fathers. By the time of his adolescence it became clear that Rafael had special human, intellectual, artistic and spiritual gifts. These qualities were remarkably well balanced in him, producing an open, positive, joyful attitude to the world of persons and things, characterized…

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Pope St. Cletus

Pope St. Anacletus

This name is only another form for Anacletus, the second successor of St. Peter. It is true that the Liberian Catalogue, a fourth-century list of popes, so called because it ends with Pope Liberius (d. 366), contains both names, as if they were different persons. But this is an error, owing evidently to the existence of two forms of the same name, one an abbreviation of the other. In the aforesaid catalogue the papal succession is: Petrus, Linus, Clemens, Cletus, Anacletus. This catalogue, however, is the only authority previous to the sixth century (Liber Pontificalis) for distinguishing two popes under the names of Cletus and Anacletus.

The “Carmen adv. Marcionem” is of the latter half of the…

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The emblem of Mercedarians (Order of Our Lady of Mercy). St. Peter Armengol was born in Guárdia dels Prats, a small village in the archdiocese of Tarragon, Spain in 1238. He belonged to the house of the barons of Rocafort, descendants of the counts of Urgel, whose ancestors were directly linked to the counts of Barcelona and the monarchs of Aragon and Castile.

 

From Brigand to Convert
Despite the great care taken by his parents regarding his education, young Peter gave himself over to a life of total dissipation in the company of other dissolute youths who led him on the wide road of vice and caprice. “Abyssus abyssum invocat” – deep calleth on deep – say the Scriptures. Thus Peter joined a gang of criminals who, pursued by justice, led the life of bandits in the mountains. Soon the young Armengol became the leader of that gang…

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St. Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort

Statue of St. Louis de Montfort at St. Peter's Basilica, Rome.

Statue of St. Louis de Montfort at St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome.

Missionary in Brittany and Vendee; born at Montfort, 31 January, 1673; died at Saint Laurent sur Sevre, 28 April, 1716.

From his childhood, he was indefatigably devoted to prayer before the Blessed Sacrament, and, when from his twelfth year he was sent as a day pupil to the Jesuit college at Rennes, he never failed to visit the church before and after class. He joined a society of young men who during holidays ministered to the poor and to the incurables in the hospitals, and read for them edifying books during their meals. At the age of nineteen, he went on foot to Paris to follow the course in theology, gave away on the journey all his money to the poor, exchanged clothing with them, and made a vow to subsist thenceforth only on alms. He was ordained priest at the age of twenty-seven, and for some time fulfilled the duties of chaplain in a hospital. In 1705, when he was thirty-two, he found his true vocation, and thereafter devoted himself to preaching to the people. During seventeen years he preached the Gospel in countless towns and villages. As an orator he was highly gifted, his language being simple but replete with fire and divine love. His whole life was conspicuous for virtues difficult for modern degeneracy to comprehend: constant prayer, love of the poor, poverty carried to an unheard-of degree, joy in humiliations and persecutions.

Blessed Marie-Louise Trichet takes the habit from Saint Louis de Montfort as the first of the Daughters of Wisdom.

Blessed Marie-Louise Trichet takes the habit from Saint Louis de Montfort as the first of the Daughters of Wisdom.

The following two instances will illustrate his success. He once gave a mission for the soldiers of the garrison at La Rochelle, and moved by his words, the men wept, and cried aloud for the forgiveness of their sins. In the procession which terminated this mission, an officer walked at the head, barefooted and carrying a banner, and the soldiers, also barefooted, followed, carrying in one hand a crucifix, in the other a rosary, and singing hymns.

The desk upon which Saint Louis Marie Grignon de Montfort wrote the Treatise on True Devotion to Mary.

The desk upon which Saint Louis Marie Grignon de Montfort wrote the Treatise on True Devotion to Mary.

Grignion’s extraordinary influence was especially apparent in the matter of the calvary at Pontchateau. When he announced his determination of building a monumental calvary on a neighbouring hill, the idea was enthusiastically received by the inhabitants. For fifteen months between two and four hundred peasants worked daily without recompense, and the task had just been completed, when the king commanded that the whole should be demolished, and the land restored to its former condition. The Jansenists had convinced the Governor of Brittany that a fortress capable of affording aid to persons in revolt was being erected, and for several months five hundred peasants, watched by a company of soldiers, were compelled to carry out the work of destruction. Father de Montfort was not disturbed on receiving this humiliating news, exclaiming only: “Blessed be God!”

The tomb of Saint Louis de Montfort, where his remains were moved after his canonization.

The tomb of Saint Louis de Montfort, where his remains were moved after his canonization.

This was by no means the only trial to which Grignion was subjected. It often happened that the Jansenists, irritated by his success, secure by their intrigues his banishment form the district, in which he was giving a mission. At La Rochelle some wretches put poison into his cup of broth, and, despite the antidote which he swallowed, his health was always impaired. On another occasion, some malefactors hid in a narrow street with the intention of assassinating him, but he had a presentiment of danger and escaped by going by another street. A year before his death, Father de Montfort founded two congregations — the Sisters of Wisdom, who were to devote themselves to hospital work and the instruction of poor girls, and the Company of Mary, composed of missionaries. He had long cherished these projects but circumstances had hindered their execution, and, humanly speaking, the work appeared to have failed at his death, since these congregations numbered respectively only four sisters and two priests with a few brothers. But the blessed founder, who had on several occasions shown himself possessed of the gift of prophecy, knew that the tree would grow. At the beginning of the twentieth century the Sisters of Wisdom numbered five thousand, and were spread throughout every country; they possessed forty-four houses, and gave instruction to 60,000 children. After the death of its founder, the Company of Mary was governed for 39 years by Father Mulot. He had at first refused to join de Montfort in his missionary labours. “I cannot become a missionary”, said he, “for I have been paralysed on one side for years; I have an affection of the lungs which scarcely allows me to breathe, and am indeed so ill that I have no rest day or night.” But the holy man, impelled by a sudden inspiration, replied, “As soon as you begin to preach you will be completely cured.” And the event justified the prediction. Grignion de Montfort was beatified by Leo XIII in 1888.

[Nobility.org note: He was canonized by Pius XII in 1947.]

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CRUIKSHANK, Blessed Grignion, etc. (London, 1892); JAC, Vie, etc. (Paris, 1903); LAVEILLE, Vic, etc. (Paris, 1907).

AUSTIN POULAIN (Catholic Encyclopedia)

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Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, by Lemuel Francis Abbott

Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson and 1st Duke of Bronté KB, painted by Lemuel Francis Abbott.

It was at this time also that Nelson, oblivious alike to the clamour of the opposing fleet and to the cheering of his own men at the sight of St. George’s flag, went down to his cabin, sank on his knees, and wrote in his diary this prayer: “May the great God, whom I worship, grant to my Country, and for the benefit of Europe in general, a great and glorious Victory; and may no misconduct in any one tarnish it; and may humanity after Victory be the predominant feature in the British Fleet. For myself, individually, I commit my life to Him who made me and may his blessing light upon my endeavours for serving my Country faithfully. To him I resign myself and the just cause which is entrusted to me to defend. Amen. Amen. Amen.”

Trafalgar Battle - 21st of Octaber 1805 - Situation at 17h, painted by Nicholas Pocock.

Trafalgar Battle – 21st of Octaber 1805 – Situation at 17h, painted by
Nicholas Pocock.

This done, he put on his best uniform with his most glittering decorations….

The English squadron was bearing down close on the allied fleet, which had curved in upon itself like some monster that senses the approach of a storm….

He then adjusted his glass and carefully observed the enemy fleet from which the Victory was now separated by less than half a mile. Next he turned his glass towards the second column….

The Battle of Trafalgar. Painting by Auguste Mayer.

The Battle of Trafalgar. Painting by Auguste Mayer.

Immediately after this, as if struck by a brilliant idea, he lowered his glass, and asked Blackwood:

“Do you not think we should run up one more signal? Something like ‘Nelson confides that every man will do his duty’?”

Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Blackwood, 1st Baronet, GCH, KCB.

Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Blackwood, 1st Baronet, GCH, KCB.

“It is an idea,” replied Blackwood, who was obviously searching for words, “but possibly it might be better to say, ‘England expects…;”

“You are right, Blackwood. Mr. Pasco, if you please—signal this message to the fleet: ‘England expects that every man will do his duty!’”

 

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René Maine, Trafalgar: Napoleon’s Naval Waterloo, trans. Rita Eldon and B. W. Robinson (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1957), 218-20.

Short Stories on Honor, Chivalry, and the World of Nobility—no. 521

 

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by Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira

St. Ignatius of Loyola

St. Ignatius of Loyola

You know that at the time of St. Ignatius, the word “company” meant army. Not exactly army but it was a fraction of the army, a brigade, regiment or something of the sort. Company of Jesus means Regiment of Jesus. In other words, he wanted to do his priestly apostolate with the spirit of chivalry. That shows very well that this is not foolhardy. It can be done and is praiseworthy. This is the spirit of chivalry that we must have in us.

(Excerpt from a Chá, Monday, Sept. 18, 1989 – Nobility.org translation)

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St. Leonidas

(Or LEONIDES.)

The Roman Martyrology records several feast days of martyrs of this name in different countries. Under date of 28 January there is a martyr called Leonides, a native of the Thebaid, whose death with several companions is supposed to have occurred during the Diocletian persecution (Acta SS., January, II, 832). Another Leonides appears on 2 September, in a long list of martyrs headed by a St. Diomedes. Together with a St. Eleutherius, a Leonides is honoured on 8 August. From other sources we know of a St. Leonidas, Bishop of Athens, who lived about the sixth century, and whose feast is celebrated on 15 April (“Acta SS.”, April, II, 378; “Bibliotheca hagiographica graeca”, 2nd ed., 137). Still another martyr of the name is honoured on 16 April, with Callistus, Charysius, and other companions (Acta SS., April, II, 402).

Origen Adamantius, the son of St. Leonides of Alexandria.

Origen Adamantius, the son of St. Leonides of Alexandria.

The best known of them all, however, is St. Leonides of Alexandria, father of the great Origen. From Eusebius (Hist. Eccles., VI, 1, 2) we learn that he died a martyr during the persecution under Septimius Severus in 202. He was condemned to death by the prefect of Egypt, Lactus, and beheaded. His property was confiscated. Leonides carefully cultivated the brilliant intellect of his son Origen from the latter’s childhood, and imparted to him the knowledge of Holy Scripture. The feast of St. Leonidas of Alexandria is celebrated on 22 April.

J.P. KIRSCH (Catholic Encyclopedia)

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Pedralvarez Cabral

(Pedro Alvarez.)

A celebrated Portugese navigator, generally called the discoverer of Brazil, born probably around 1460; date of death uncertain. Very little is known concerning the life of Cabral. He was the third son of Fernao Cabral, Governor of Beira and Belmonte, and Isabel de Gouvea, and married Isabel de Castro, the daughter of the distinguished Fernando de Noronha. He must have had an exellent training ini navigation and large experience as a seaman, for King Emmanuel of Portugal considered him competent to continue the work of Vasco da Gama, and in the year 1500 placed him in command of a fleet which was to set sail for India. His commision was to establish permanent commercial…

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April 23 – The Original Knight in Shining Armor

April 21, 2016

St. George Martyr, patron of England, suffered at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, probably before the time of Constantine. According to the very careful investigation of the whole question recently instituted by Father Delehaye, the Bollandist, in the light of modern sources of information, the above statement sums up all that […]

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April 23 – Archbishop author of war-song

April 21, 2016

St. Adalbert of Bohemia Born 939 of a noble Bohemian family; died 997. He assumed the name of the Archbishop Adalbert (his name had been Wojtech), under whom he studied at Magdeburg. He became Bishop of Prague, whence he was obliged to flee on account of the enmity he had aroused by his efforts to […]

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April 24 – Mother Mary Euphrasia Pelletier

April 21, 2016

Mother Mary Euphrasia Pelletier, foundress of the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd and canonized May 2, 1940 by Pope Pius XII. The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who wish to do penance for their iniquities and to lead a […]

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April 24 – “I came to extirpate heresy, not to embrace it”

April 21, 2016

St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen Born in 1577, at Sigmaringen, Prussia, of which town his father Johannes Rey was burgomaster; died at Sevis, 24 April, 1622. On the paternal side he was of Flemish ancestry. He pursued his studies at the University of Freiburg in the Breisgau, and in 1604 became tutor to Wilhelm von Stotzingen, […]

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April 25 – Builder

April 21, 2016

Blessed Meinwerk Tenth Bishop of Paderborn, d. 1036: Meinwerk (Meginwerk) was born of the noble family of the Immedinger and related to the royal house of Saxony. His father was Imad (Immeth), Count of Teisterbant and Radichen, and his mother’s name was Adela (Adala, Athela). In early youth he was dedicated by his parents to […]

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April 19 – Captured by pirates

April 18, 2016

St. Alphege (or Elphege), Saint, born 954; died 1012; also called Godwine, martyred Archbishop of Canterbury, left his widowed mother and patrimony for the monastery of Deerhurst (Gloucestershire). St. Alphege being asked for advice. After some years as an anchorite at Bath, he there became abbot, and (19 Oct., 984) was made Bishop of Winchester. […]

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April 19 – The saintly warrior pope

April 18, 2016

Pope St. Leo IX Pope St. Leo IX earnestly spread the Cluny reform. Born at Egisheim, near Colmar, on the borders of Alsace, 21 June, 1002, Pope St. Leo IX died on 19 April, 1054. He belonged to a noble family which had given or was to give saints to the Church and rulers to […]

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April 19 – Blessed Conrad of Ascoli

April 18, 2016

Friar Minor and missionary, born at Ascoli in the March of Ancona in 1234; died there, 19 April, 1289. He belonged to the noble family of Milliano and from his earliest years made penance the predominating element of his life… Read more here.

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April 20 – Blessed John Finch

April 18, 2016

Bl. John Finch A martyr, b. about 1548; d. 20 April, 1584. He was a yeoman of Eccleston, Lancashire, and a member of a well-known old Catholic family, but he appears to have been brought up in schism. When he was twenty years old he went to London where he spent nearly a year with […]

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April 20 – “I beg your Lordship…that my lips and…fingers may be cut off…”

April 18, 2016

Blessed Fr. James Bell Priest and martyr, b. at Warrington in Lancashire, England, probably about 1520; d. 20 April, 1584. For the little known of him we depend on the account published four years after his death by Bridgewater in his “Concertatio” (1588), and derived from a manuscript which was kept at Douay when Challoner […]

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April 20 – Blessed Richard Sergeant

April 18, 2016

Bl. Richard Sergeant English martyr, executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1586. He was probably a younger son of Thomas Sergeant of Stone, Gloucestershire, by Katherine, daughter of John Tyre of Hardwick. He took his degree at Oxford (20 Feb., 1570-1), and arrived at the English College, Reims, on 25 July, 1581. He was ordained subdeacon […]

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April 21 – Adventurous in youth and adulthood

April 18, 2016

St. Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor of the Church; born at Aosta a Burgundian town on the confines of Lombardy, died 21 April, 1109. His father, Gundulf, was a Lombard who had become a citizen of Aosta, and his mother, Ermenberga, came of an old Burgundian family. Like many other saints, Anselm learnt the first […]

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Vasco da Gama prays to Our Lady before setting out for India

April 14, 2016

At Belém they were all kneeling at his side: Paulo da Gama, his brother, with Nicolau Coelho and Gonçalo Nunes, his other captains and their pilots, Pero de Alenquer, João de Coimbra, Pero Escolar, Afonso Gonçalves; and likewise the “secretaries” Diogo Dias, João de Sá and Álvaro de Braga. Bartolomeu Dias was also there, for […]

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Norway referendum on monarchy to be proposed this month

April 14, 2016

According to Norway Today: …Labour’s deputy Hadia Tajik and over 80 percent of the youngest members of the Ap group in the parliament want to remove the royal house and introduce the republic in Norway. Oslo Progress Party does not want this, but wants to propose a referendum on this issue. – It is important […]

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Churchill: Democracy Made War Cruel and Squalid

April 14, 2016

“War, which used to be cruel and magnificent, has now become cruel and squalid. In fact it has been completely spoilt. It is all the fault of democracy and science. From the moment that either of these meddlers and muddlers was allowed to take part in actual fighting, the doom of war was sealed. Instead […]

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April 16 – Martyred in the name of Equality

April 14, 2016

Just a few of the many martyrs during the French Revolution († 1792-1799) 16 April 1794 in Avrillé, Maine-et-Loire (France) The cruel blade of the guillotine was indifferent to the service that generations of France’s illustrious lineages had given to the country. Pierre Delépine layperson of the diocese of Angers born: 24 May 1732 in […]

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April 17 – He rescued his country from crushing debt, yet waged incessant war

April 14, 2016

Maximilian I Duke of Bavaria, 1598-1622, Elector of Bavaria and Lord High Steward of the Holy Roman Empire, 1623-1651; born at Munich, 17 April, 1573; died at Ingolstadt, 27 September, 1651. The lasting services he rendered his country and the Catholic Church justly entitle him to the surname of “Great”. He was the son of […]

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April 17 – One of the many nobles who spread the Cluny reform

April 14, 2016

St. Robert Founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne, born at Aurilac, Auvergne, about 1000; died in Auvergne, 1067. St. Robert print by Raphael Sadeler & Marten de Vos On his father’s side he belonged to the family of the Counts of Aurilac, who had given birth to St. Géraud. He studied at Brioude […]

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April 17 – St. Stephen Harding

April 14, 2016

St. Stephen Harding Confessor, the third Abbot of Cîteaux, was born at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, England, about the middle of the eleventh century; died 28 March, 1134. He received his early education in the monastery of Sherborne and afterwards studied in Paris and Rome. On returning from the latter city he stopped at the monastery […]

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April 18 – Blessed Marie de l’Incarnation

April 14, 2016

Bl. Marie de l’Incarnation Bl. Marie of the Incarnation, O.C.D. , also as Madame Acarie Known also as Madame Acarie, foundress of the French Carmel, born in Paris, 1 February, 1566; died at Pontoise, April, 1618. By her family Barbara Avrillot belonged to the higher bourgeois society in Paris. Her father, Nicholas Avrillot was accountant […]

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April 18 – St. Willigis

April 14, 2016

St. Willigis Archbishop of Mainz, d. 23 Feb., 1011. Feast, 23 February or 18 April. Though of humble birth he received a good education, and through the influence of Bishop Volkold of Meissen entered the service of Otto I, and after 971 figured as chancellor of Germany. Otto II in 975 made him Archbishop of […]

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April 12 – St. Teresa of the Andes

April 11, 2016

Saint Teresa of the Andes, O.C.D. (July 13, 1900 – April 12, 1920), also known as Saint Teresa of Jesus of the Andes (Spanish: Teresa de Jesús de los Andes), was a Chilean nun of the Discalced Carmelite order. She was born Juana Enriqueta Josefina de los Sagrados Corazones Fernández y Solar in Santiago, Chile […]

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April 12 – Crusader in every sense of the word

April 11, 2016

Bl. Angelo Carletti di Chivasso Moral theologian of the order of Friars Minor; born at Chivasso in Piedmont, in 1411; and died at Coni, in Piedmont, in 1495. From his tenderest years the Blessed Angelo was remarkable for the holiness and purity of his life. He attended the University of Bologna, where he received the […]

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April 12 – Pope St. Julius I

April 11, 2016

(337-352) The immediate successor of Pope Silvester, Arcus, ruled the Roman Church for only a very short period – from 18 January to 7 October, 336 – and after his death the papal chair remained vacant for four months. What occasioned this comparatively long vacancy is unknown. On 6 February, 337, Julius, son of Rustics […]

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April 13 – This Prince Defied His Family

April 11, 2016

St. Hermengild Date of birth unknown; died 13 April, 585. Leovigild, the Arian King of the Visigoths (569-86), had two sons, Hermengild and Reccared, by his first marriage with the Catholic Princess Theodosia. Hermengild married, in 576, Ingundis, a Frankish Catholic princess, the daughter of Sigebert and Brunhilde… Read more here.  

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April 13 – Born blind, lame, deformed, hunchbacked and dwarfed

April 11, 2016

Blessed Margaret of Castello (1287–1320) is the patroness of the poor, crippled, and the unwanted. She was born blind, lame, deformed, hunchbacked and a dwarf, into a family of nobles in the castle of Metola, in southeast of Florence. As a child, her parents Parisio and Emilia imprisoned her for 14 years so no one… […]

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April 13 – Pope St. Martin I

April 11, 2016

Pope St. Martin I Martyr, born at Todi on the Tiber, son of Fabricius; elected Pope at Rome, 21 July, 649, to succeed Theodore I; d at Cherson in the present peninsulas of Krym, 16 Sept., 655, after a reign of 6 years, one month and twenty six days, having ordained eleven priests, five deacons […]

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April 14 – She suffered for the moral corruption and decay of her time

April 11, 2016

Saint Lydwine In 1380, Saint Lydwine was born in the small town of Schiedam in Holland. Her father was a wealthy noble named Peter, and her mother was from a poor family who worked their own farm. Her father’s family lost their fortune, and the whole family was reduced to poverty. At that time, all […]

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April 14 – St. Peter Gonzalez (aka St. Elmo)

April 11, 2016

St. Peter Gonzalez Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was educated by his uncle, Bishop of Astorga, who gave him when very young a canonry. Later he entered the Dominican Order and became a renowned preacher; crowds gathered to hear him and numberless […]

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British Monarchy on Last Legs?

April 7, 2016

According to The Telegraph: Dr Anna Whitelock is an early modern history don at London University. …but she’s certainly not much good at modern history. She’s just said that, by 2030, the monarchy could be on its last legs; that the popularity of the monarchy is linked to the Queen, not the institution itself. The […]

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Few naturalised Canadians recant oath of allegiance to Queen

April 7, 2016

According to The Guardian: …a small but determined group of naturalised Canadians rebel against the oath to the Queen required of all new Canadian citizens. Ezra de Leon became a Canadian citizen in 2002… His opposition to the idea has since hardened. “Since then I realised that it is undemocratic to force a new Canadian […]

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How many were lost to birth control?

April 7, 2016

  Ann Clare Boothe was born on April 10, 1903, in a dismal apartment house on Riverside Drive in New York City…. Clare herself once succinctly pictured her unpropitious prospects as a baby. Shortly after her conversion to Catholicism, she was attacked by an ardent disciple of Mrs. Sanger for the Catholic stand against birth […]

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Eleanor of Castile: Daughter of St. Ferdinand and Much Loved Queen of England

April 7, 2016

She [Eleanor of Castille] died on November 28, in her forth-seventh year.…. Edward emerged from his solitary mourning to accompany the cortege to Lincoln. The bier rested that first night at the Priory of St. Catherine close to the city, and it was probably then that the determination became fixed in the king’s mind to […]

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Sacred Art and Naturalism

April 7, 2016

By Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira Upon entering the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, the first impression is one of vastness. The immense polished floor provides an open arena for the diverse performance of the filtering light. The length and height of the walls are enhanced by the tall, narrow arches. One row of arches opens […]

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April 8 – Together with a noble who escaped the Terror, she founded the Sisters of Notre Dame

April 7, 2016

St. Julie Billiart (Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of Notre Dame of Namur, born 12 July, 1751, at Cuvilly, a village of Picardy, in the Diocese of Beauvais and the Department of Oise, France; died 8 April, 1816, at the motherhouse of her institute, Namur, Belgium. She was […]

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April 9 – She persuaded her husband the Count to become a monk

April 7, 2016

St. Waudru She was daughter to the princess St. Bertille, elder sister to St. Aldegondes, and wife to Madelgaire, count of Hainault, and one of the principal lords of King Dagobert’s court. After bearing him two sons and two daughters, she induced him to embrace the monastic state at Haumont, near Maubeuge, taking the name […]

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April 9 – Mary of Cleophas

April 7, 2016

Mary of Cleophas This title occurs only in John, xix, 25. A comparison of the lists of those who stood at the foot of the cross would seem to identify her with Mary, the mother of James the Less and Joseph ( Mark, xv, 40; cf. Matt., xxvii, 56). Some have indeed tried to identify […]

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April 10 – Friend of Cluny

April 7, 2016

St. Fulbert of Chartres Bishop, born between 952 and 962; died 10 April, 1028 or 1029. Mabillon and others think that he was born in Italy, probably at Rome; but Pfister, his latest biographer, designates as his birthplace the Diocese of Laudun in the present department of Gard in France. He was of humble parentage […]

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April 11 – He excommunicated the king, who murdered him as he celebrated Mass

April 7, 2016

Saint Stanislaus of Cracow Martyrdom of St. Stanislaus of Cracow from Anjou legendarium of the Kings of Hungary (XIV century) In pictures he is given the episcopal insignia and the sword. Larger paintings represent him in a court or kneeling before the altar and receiving the fatal blow. His parents, Belislaus and Bogna, pious and […]

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New Zealand votes to keep Union Jack on flag

April 4, 2016

According to The Crown Chronicles: New Zealand has voted to keep their current flag, featuring the Union Jack of the United Kingdom. 2.1 millions New Zelanders voted in the referendum, a 67% turn out. The issue with the current flag lay in that the flag of the UK formed part of the NZ flag, due […]

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