September 11 – Italian army invades the Papal State without a declaration of war

The King of Italy sends an ultimatum to Blessed Pope Pius IX   As the French military situation deteriorated [in the Franco-Prussian War], the government in Florence grew bolder. Near the end of August [1870], the Italian cabinet issued a circular letter to all the governments of Europe, in which it declared that the time … Continue reading September 11 – Italian army invades the Papal State without a declaration of war